Exploring Rural-Urban Dynamics: A Study of Inter-State Migrants in Gurgaon (Hindi)

Exploring Rural-Urban Dynamics: A Study of Inter-State Migrants in Gurgaon (Hindi)

In the light of on‐going structural changes in India and consequently changing contours of the rural economy, the nature and pattern of migration has been changing over time. During the last two decades, there has been a general change in the destination of migration from rural‐rural to rural‐urban. However, the intensity of migration is generally reported to be low in India due to the conventional approach of defining migration.

Planning for the poor in the destination cities is conspicuous by its absence. As the mind‐set of the urban planners is to treat migrants as outsiders and a burden on the existing civic infrastructure, they get excluded from most urban planning processes and mechanisms, compounding the problems that they are already plagued with.

Inter‐State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1979 was promulgated for the purpose of regulation of the service condition of the migrant workers, but in status today, it is an ineffective piece of legislation. In today’s scenario, there is an urgent need to revisit the debate on legislation for the welfare of migrant workers.
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Exploring Rural-Urban Dynamics: A Study of Inter-State Migrants in Gurgaon

Exploring Rural-Urban Dynamics: A Study of Inter-State Migrants in Gurgaon

In the light of on‐going structural changes in India and consequently changing contours of the rural economy, the nature and pattern of migration has been changing over time. During the last two decades, there has been a general change in the destination of migration from rural‐rural to rural‐urban. However, the intensity of migration is generally reported to be low in India due to the conventional approach of defining migration.

Planning for the poor in the destination cities is conspicuous by its absence. As the mind‐set of the urban planners is to treat migrants as outsiders and a burden on the existing civic infrastructure, they get excluded from most urban planning processes and mechanisms, compounding the problems that they are already plagued with.

Inter‐State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1979 was promulgated for the purpose of regulation of the service condition of the migrant workers, but in status today, it is an ineffective piece of legislation. In today’s scenario, there is an urgent need to revisit the debate on legislation for the welfare of migrant workers.
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Migration Report of Jharkhand

Migration Report of Jharkhand

Migration and urbanization are two important inter-related phenomena of economic development. If channelized properly, it has the potential of societal transformation. Otherwise, it can be not only counter-productive for the societal harmony but also disastrous for the long term economic development. The historical experiences have proved that process of migration is unstoppable in modern times. The migrant workers are key force behind rising contribution of urban conglomerations to India’s GDP. Migrants are indispensable but mostly invisible key actors in cities’ development. Rural migrants in urban spaces are socially mobile, culturally flexible and economically aspiring people. Migrants are an important component of social dynamism and material development of the society. They can also be tools of cultural amalgamation and innovation. Yet, they are most vulnerable to economic exploitation and social stereotyping.

The contribution of migrants to the GDP of the country goes unnoticed. It is estimated that the migrants contribute no less than 10% to the country’s GDP.1 Many other positive as well as potential impact through the migration process remains unrecognized. According to Census 2001, in India, internal migrants account for as large as 309 million, which was about 28% of the then total population. More recent numbers, as revealed by NSSO (2007-08), show that there are about 326 million internal migrants in India, i.e. nearly 30% of the total population. Almost 70% of all the migrants are women, the fact often forgotten and lost in the data on migration.

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Health & Safety Group: Final Portfolio

Health & Safety Group: Final Portfolio

Rajesh is a Quality Controller in the Production Department of a garment factory in Gurgaon, India. He works over twelve hours per day, every single day. Management tells employees to work overtime, often regardless of whether production targets are met, despite consistently refusing to pay workers the double-time wages they are entitled to. If workers rightfully object, they are told “not to come back to work tomorrow.”

Rajesh’s situation is not uncommon. The coercive strategies leveraged by Rajesh’s management are emblematic of garment worker oppression in the factories of Gurgaon. While forced overtime negatively impacts all aspects of workers’ lives in- and outside of their factories, these practices have particularly appalling effects on workplace health and safety.
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BARRIERS TO JUSTICE: Workers’ struggle in Gurgaon

BARRIERS TO JUSTICE: Workers’ struggle in Gurgaon

In Gurgaon, workers face apathetic, biased, and dysfunctional justice systems. Barriers to justice for workers in Gurgaon are legendary, demonstrate institutionalized anti-worker and pro-business practices, and flourish in a culture of impunity.
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Wage Structures in the Indian Garment Industry

Wage Structures in the Indian Garment Industry

The Indian economy adopted a liberalised economic policy regime after 1990–91, in an attempt to ensure greater integration of the domestic economy with global competitive markets. This was motivated by the policy assumption that opening up of domestic markets would enhance the competitive efficiency of domestic business enterprises on account of transfer of technology, knowledge and skill sets from abroad. A large set of literature has shown that despite the modernisation of domestic enterprises over the past two decades, the Indian manufacturing sector has failed to propel itself on a high growth trajectory (Unni and Rani, 2004). Contrary to the policy belief, severe competition in the global export markets have led domestic firms to resort to cost cutting labour market strategies that have led to the widespread prevalence of oppressive labour relations across the Indian manufacturing sector (Vijay, 2009).

In a bid to remain globally competitive, firms have targeted reduction of labour costs as a tool to ensure a reduction in production costs. This is evident in firms denying payment of minimum wages, social security, or fringe benefits to its workforce and increasingly resorting to informal employment contracts that ensure flexibility to businesses in terms of labour costs. Persistent minimum wage violations or wage theft practices coupled with a lack of freedom of association are becoming alarmingly visible across the Indian manufacturing sector.
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A Study of Subcontracting in the Garment Industry in Gurgaon

A Study of Subcontracting in the Garment Industry in Gurgaon

It is common knowledge that labour intensive industries engage in subcontracting or outsourcing of production, though in varying degrees, depending on the nature of the industry. From our interaction with workers in the garment industry, it has been learned that in the last half a decade, the subcontracting in the garment industry in Gurgaon has been maturing as a common practice.

Subcontractors have become an integral part of the export oriented garment industry in Gurgaon and they contribute significantly to sustain the business cycle the Indian suppliers face by providing the extra shop floor space required to produce more during the peak seasons, and by absolving the Tier 1 companies from the legal liability of keeping a regular workforce and by assisting the Tier 1 companies to adhere to the lean manufacturing principles.

Subcontracting is taking place in the garment industry in a discreet manner (the agencies or entities which are getting the subcontracted work are not registered as factories, or micro/small/medium enterprise, or contractor/ subcontractor under any of the Laws) and thus making this invisible in the eyes of law.

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Construction Industry in Gurgaon: Living and Working Condition of the Workers

Construction Industry in Gurgaon: Living and Working Condition of the Workers

The construction industry is the single biggest non-agricultural industry in the capitalist world. Construction sector is next to Agriculture, is the second largest economic activity in India in terms of employment and plays an important role in the nation’s economy. The performance of other sectors of the economy is interlinked with this industry which generates demand for both skilled and semi-skilled labour force. Around 16% of the nation’s working population depends on it for their livelihood.

According to the Planning Commission’s Approach to 12th Five Year Plan the contribution to the GDP by construction sector rose from Rs. 28,77,701 (2005) to Rs.49,33,183 (2009). In terms of percentage, the contribution of Construction sector to total GDP increases from 7.4 % (2005) to 8.9% (2009) — thus Construction sector accounts for around 9.0 per cent of GDP today.

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A Study of the Contract Labour System in the Garment Industry in Gurgaon

A Study of the Contract Labour System in the Garment Industry in Gurgaon

Haryana State is one of the fastest growing states in India. The GDP was Rs 2, 162,870 million in 2009-2010 and Rs 2,577,930 million in 2010-2011, an increase of 19% in a single year. This reflects an increasing trend of economic growth in Haryana over the last decade despite the global downturn and its impact on the export/foreign investment-oriented industries that now characterise the economy of the state. In keeping with the neo liberal economic policies introduced in India during the early 1990s, the state has attracted investment through various incentives to the industrial sectors, embarking on the industrialisation of an economy that had traditionally been based on agriculture. Industry in Haryana is highly dependent on a migrant workforce that has flooded in to the state along with its phenomenal economic growth.

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Gurgaon: How the Other Half Lives a Report on Labour and Development in Gurgaon

Gurgaon: How the Other Half Lives a Report on Labour and Development in Gurgaon

This report is made possible by three organisations: the Society for Labour & Development (SLD) and the Indian Social Institute (ISI), both in Delhi, and Mazdoor Ekta Manch in Gurgaon. The need for this study was identified in the course of the founding of Mazdoor Ekta Manch (MEM) – “Workers’ Unity Platform”.

Mazdoor Ekta Manch has been organising in Gurgaon since 2008, with the support of the Society for Labour & Development. In the process of supporting the establishment of MEM, SLD recognized that very little documentation was available about the social and living conditions of the working class population, and the impact on that population of the policies of the government and private authorities and agencies around them. Indeed, the Haryana government does not have any useful data on the working class in their State. SLD and ISI decided to collaborate on a research project to better understand the invisible Gurgaon, where the majority of the population lives and works every day.

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